Čechoameričan (Czech American) je označení pro občana USA, který se narodil, nebo je potomkem někoho, kdo se narodil v Českých zemích a později emigroval do USA. V 19. století byli často nazýváni „Bohemians“. Při sčítání lidu v roce 2000 žilo v USA 1 328 486 Američanů s kořeny v českých zemích plus 441 403 osob s českými předky.
První dokumentovaý případ vstupu čecha na severoamerický kontinent je Joachim Gans z Prahy, který přišel v roce 1585 do Roanoke v Severní Karolíně, s expedicí objevitelů pod velením Sira Waltera Raleigha (1552 -1618).
Augustine Herman (1621-1686) byl prvním dokumentovaným českým osadníkem a do Nového Amsterdamu (dnes New York City) dorazil roku 1633. He was a surveyor and skilled draftsman, successful planter and developer of new lands, a shrewd and enterprising merchant, a bold politician and effective diplomat, fluent in several languages. After coming to New Amsterdam (present New York) he became one of the most influential people in the Dutch Province which led to his appointment to the Council of Nine to advise the New Amsterdam Governor Peter Stuyvesant. One of his greatest achievements was his celebrated map of Maryland and Virginia commissioned by Lord Baltimore on which he began working in earnest after removing to the English Province of Maryland. Lord Baltimore - Cæcilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore - was so pleased with the map that he rewarded Herman with a large estate, named by Herman "Bohemia Manor", and the hereditary title Lord.
There was another Bohemian living in New Amsterdam at that time, Frederick Philipse (1626 -1720), who became equally famous. He was a successful merchant who, eventually, became the wealthiest person in the entire Dutch Province. Philipse was originally from Bohemia, from an aristocratic Protestant family who had to leave their native land to save their lives, after the Thirty Years' War.
The first significant wave of Czech colonists was of the Moravian Brethren who began arriving on the American shores in the first half of the 18th century. Moravian Brethren were the followers of the teachings of the Czech religious reformer and martyr Jan Hus (1370 -1415) and Bishop John Amos Comenius (1592-1670). They were true heirs of the ancient "Unitas fratrum" - Unity of the Brethren bohemicorum, who found a temporary refuge in Herrnhut ("Ochranov," in Czech language) in Lusatia under the patronage of Count Nikolaus Zinzendorf (1700 -1760). Because of the worsening political and religious situation in Saxony, the Moravian Brethren, as they began calling themselves, decided to emigrate to North America.
They started coming in 1735, when they first settled in Savannah, Georgia, and then in Pennsylvania, from which they spread to other states after the American Revolution, especially Ohio. They established a number of Moravian settlements, such as Bethlehem and Lititz in Pennsylvania and Salem in North Carolina. Moravians made great contributions to the growth and development of the US. Cultural contributions of Moravian Brethren from the Czechlands were distinctly notable in the realm of music. The trumpets and horns used by the Moravians in Georgia are the first evidence of Moravian instrumental music in America.
In 1776, at the time of the Declaration of Independence, more than two thousand Moravian Brethren lived in the colonies. The Moravian Brethren established a close relationship with President Thomas Jefferson, who designated special lands to the missionaries to civilize the Indians and promote Christianity.
The free uncultivated land in America encouraged immigration throughout the eighteenth century; most of the immigrants were farmers and settled in the Midwestern states. During the American Civil War, Czechs served in both the Confederate and Union army, but as with most immigrant groups, the majority fought for the Union. Immigration resumed and reached a peak in 1907, when 13,554 Czechs entered the eastern ports. Unlike previous immigration, new immigrants were predominantly Catholic. By 1910, the Czech population was 349,000, and by 1940 it was 1,764,000. The U.S. Bureau of the Census reported that nearly 800,000 Czechs were residing in the U.S. in 1970. Since this figure did not include Czechs who had been living in the U.S. for several generations, it is fair to assume that the actual number was much higher.
Státy s největším počtem Čechoameričanů:
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Státy s největším zastoupením Čechoameričanů: